Download The Computer Book PDF Book by Simson L. Garfinkel, Rachel H. Grunspan . Soft Copy of Book The Computer Book author Simson L. Garfinkel, Rachel H. Grunspan completely free.
Reviews of : The Computer Book by Simson L. Garfinkel, Rachel H. Grunspan PDF Book
Inside this Book – The discovery of Kepler’s laws of planetary motion and Isaac Newton’s more general laws of motion and gravity encouraged scientists to seek elegant mathematical models to describe the world around them. Edmond Halley, the editor of Newton’s Principia (1687), used Newton’s calculus and laws to show that a comet seen in the night sky in 1531 and 1682 must be the same object. Halley’s work depended on the fact that the comet’s orbit was influenced not just by the sun, but also by the other planets in the solar system—especially Jupiter and Saturn. But Halley could not come up with an exact set of equations to describe the comet’s trajectory. Alexis-Claude Clairaut was a French mathematician who devised a clever solution to the problem. But it wasn’t mathematically elegant: instead of solving the problem symbolically, his method solved the problem numerically—that is, with a series of arithmetic calculations. He worked with two friends, Joseph Jérôme Lalande and Nicole-Reine Lepaute, during the summer of 1758, and the three systematically plotted the course of the comet, calculating the wanderer’s return to within 31 days. This approach of using numerical calculations to solve hard science problems quickly caught on. In 1759, Lalande and Lepaute were hired by the French Académie des Sciences to contribute computations to the Connaissance des Temps, the official French almanac; five years later, the English government hired six human computers to create its own almanac.
Inside this book –The Computer Book PDF Book by Simson L. Garfinkel, Rachel H. Grunspan – In 1801, French weaver Joseph-Marie Jacquard invented a way to accelerate and simplify the time-consuming, complex task of weaving fabric. His technique was the conceptual precursor to binary logic and programming that exists today. While looms of the 18th century could create complex patterns, doing so was an entirely manual affair, requiring an extraordinary amount of time, constant vigilance to avoid mistakes, and skilled hands—especially with intricate fabric patterns such as damask and brocade. Jacquard realized that despite the complexity of a pattern, the act of weaving was a repetitive process that could be carried out mechanically. His invention used a series of cards laced together in a continuous chain, with a row on each card where holes could be punched, corresponding with one row of the fabric pattern. Some cards had holes in the specified position, while others did not. Essentially, the punched cards were a control mechanism that contained data—like binary 0s and 1s—that directed a sequence of actions, in this case how a loom could be mechanized to weave a repeating pattern. A hole would cause a corresponding thread to be raised, while no hole would cause the thread to be lowered. The actual mechanism involved a rod that would either travel through the hole or be stopped by the card; each rod was linked to a hook, and together they formed the harness that controlled the position of the threads. After the threads were raised or lowered, the shuttle holding another roll of thread would zip from one side of the loom to the other, completing the weave. Then the rods in the holes would retract, the card would advance, and the process would start over again.
The Computer Book by Simson L. Garfinkel, Rachel H. Grunspan PDF : eBook Information
- Full Book Name – The Computer Book
- Author of this Book – Simson L. Garfinkel, Rachel H. Grunspan
- Language – English
- Book Genre – Science, Computer Science, Non-Fiction
- Download Format – PDF
- Size – 29.7 MB
- eBook Pages – 586
- Price – Free